Corporativism

   Corporativism or corporatism, a social and economic doctrine or ideology, has been influential on several occasions in the 20th century. Based on Catholic social doctrines, corporativism began to enjoy a certain vogue among conservative parties in the First Republic. The Estado Novo adopted the doctrine as one of its main ideologies and strategies after 1930, although it took decades for the corporative system to be instituted in any comprehensive way. Antônio de Oliveira Salazar and his ruling group advocated the corporative system in the 1933 Constitution and the National Labor
   Statute of September 1933, but it was not until after a 1956 law that the system was put into operation.
   The Estado Novo's intention was to have greater control over the economy than the weak First Republic had managed by means of eliminating social conflict as well as the inevitable struggle between labor and management. New state doctrine declared that the regime under a corporative system would be "neither bourgeois nor proletarian." The idea was that corporativism in Portugal would be largely self-regulating and would promote social peace and prosperity. In fact, the corporative system became simply another part of the large state bureaucracy in the 1950s, l960s, and 1970s. Under this system, management was organized in guilds (grêmios) and labor in official unions (sindicatos). The state also organized special employer-employee institutes for rural workers (Casas do Povo or "Houses of the People") and for fishermen (Casas dos Pescadores or "Houses of Fishermen").
   An elaborate bureaucratic structure administered this cumbersome system. A Chamber of Corporations, representing all professions and occupations, was the upper chamber of the national legislature in Lisbon. One major aim or strategy of the system was to prevent labor strikes or lockouts, but after 1942's widespread strikes and later labor unrest it was clear that opposition labor groups, some organized by the Portuguese Communist Party (PCP), had engineered their own labor union system parallel to the corporative system. After the Revolution of 25 April 1974, the first provisional government abolished the Estado Novo's corporative system.

Historical dictionary of Portugal 3rd ed.. . 2014.

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